Psychological effects of steroids on athletes

Applied and Rehabilitation Psychology: Open Access, Journal of Child and Adolescent Behavior, Child Development Psychology, Abnormal and Behavioural Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Child Development, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Early Child Development and Care, Child Development Psychology Journals, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, Contemporary Educational Psychology, Criminal Justice and Behavior, Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, Journal of The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

In addition to the mentioned side effects several others have been reported. In both males and females acne are frequently reported, as well as hypertrophy of sebaceous glands, increased tallow excretion, hair loss, and alopecia. There is some evidence that anabolic steroid abuse may affect the immune system, leading to a decreased effectiveness of the defense system. Steroid use decreases the glucose tolerance, while there is an increase in insulin resistance. These changes mimic Type II diabetes. These changes seem to be reversible after abstention from the drugs.

In 1979, Devi at the University of Illinois published an article ("About Smocks and Jocks") in which he contended that it was difficult to apply specific laboratory research to sporting situations. For instance, how can the pressure of shooting a foul shot in front of 12,000 screaming fans be duplicated in the lab? Martens contended: "I have grave doubts that isolated psychological studies which manipulate a few variables, attempting to uncover the effects of X on Y, can be cumulative to form a coherent picture of human behavior. I sense that the elegant control achieved in laboratory research is such that all meaning is drained from the experimental situation. The external validity of laboratory studies is at best limited to predicting behavior in other laboratories." [16] Martens urged researchers to get out of the laboratory and onto the field to meet athletes and coaches on their own turf. Martens' article spurred an increased interest in qualitative research methods in sport psychology, such as the seminal article "Mental Links to Excellence." [17]

Psychological effects of steroids on athletes

psychological effects of steroids on athletes

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