Hypogonadism caused by steroids

Caronia et al. (2011) studied 55 women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, who had all completed puberty spontaneously and had a history of secondary amenorrhea for 6 months or more, with low or normal gonadotropin levels and low serum estradiol levels. All had 1 or more predisposing factors, including excessive exercise, loss of more than 15% of body weight, and/or a subclinical eating disorder, and all had normal results on neuroimaging. The authors screened 7 HH-associated genes in the 55 affected women and identified 7 patients from 6 families who carried heterozygous mutations, including 1 in KAL1, 2 in FGFR1, 2 in PROKR2, and 1 in the GNRHR gene. Since these women with mutations resumed regular menses after discontinuing hormone-replacement therapy, Caronia et al. (2011) concluded that the genetic component of hypothalamic amenorrhea predisposes patients to, but is not sufficient to cause, GnRH deficiency.

For both men and women, an alternative to testosterone replacement is low-dose clomifene treatment, which can stimulate the body to naturally increase hormone levels while avoiding infertility and other side effects that can result from direct hormone replacement therapy. [17] This therapy has only been shown helpful for men with secondary hypogonadism. Recent studies have shown it can be safe and effective monotherapy for up to 2 years in patients with intact testicular function and impaired function of the HPTA( http:///ijir/journal/v15/n3/full/ ). Clomifene blocks estrogen from binding to some estrogen receptors in the hypothalamus, thereby causing an increased release gNRH and subsequently LH from the pituitary. Clomifene is a Selective Estrogen Reuptake Modulator (SERM). Generally clomifene does not have adverse effects at the doses used for this purpose. Clomifene at much higher doses is used to induce ovulation and has significant adverse effects in such a setting.

" Midget ", whose etymology indicates a "tiny biting insect", [32] came into prominence in the mid-19th century after Harriet Beecher Stowe used it in her novels Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands and Old Town Folks where she described children and an extremely short man, respectively. [12] Later some people of short stature considered the word to be offensive because it was the descriptive term applied to P. T. Barnum 's dwarfs used for public amusement during the freak show era. [9] [33] It is also not considered accurate as it is not a medical term or diagnosis, though it is sometimes used as a slang term to describe those who are particularly short, whether or not they have dwarfism. [34]

Hypogonadism caused by steroids

hypogonadism caused by steroids

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