A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that in 2011, sedatives and hypnotics were a leading source for adverse drug events seen in the hospital setting. Approximately % of all ADEs present on admission and % of ADEs that originated during a hospital stay were caused by a sedative or hypnotic drug.  A second study by AHRQ found that in 2011, the most common specifically identified causes of adverse drug events that originated during hospital stays in the . were steroids, antibiotics, opiates/narcotics, and anticoagulants. Patients treated in urban teaching hospitals had higher rates of ADEs involving antibiotics and opiates/narcotics compared to those treated in urban nonteaching hospitals. Those treated in private, nonprofit hospitals had higher rates of most ADE causes compared to patients treated in public or private, for-profit hospitals. 
Effective options for stress ulcer prophylaxis include PPIs, H 2 antagonists, antacids, and sucralfate (Carafate). No medication has been shown to be superior to another. Although the optimal duration of prophylaxis is not known, most experts suggest continuing therapy while the patient is in the ICU, when bleeding risk is highest. However, many patients continue to receive prophylaxis inappropriately when they are transferred to general medical units and continue therapy after discharge without clear medical indications. 31 To minimize adverse outcomes, physicians should discontinue PPIs in patients when they are discharged from the ICU if there are no other indications for therapy.
In the laboratory classroom clinical trials in children (Studies 1 and 2), both CONCERTA® once daily and methylphenidate three times daily increased resting pulse by an average of 2 to 6 bpm and produced average increases of systolic and diastolic blood pressure of roughly 1 to 4 mm Hg during the day, relative to placebo. In the placebo-controlled adolescent trial (Study 4), mean increases from baseline in resting pulse rate were observed with CONCERTA® and placebo at the end of the double-blind phase (5 and 3 beats/minute, respectively). Mean increases from baseline in blood pressure at the end of the double-blind phase for CONCERTA® and placebo-treated patients were and mm Hg (systolic) and and mm Hg (diastolic), respectively. In one placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 6), dose-dependent mean increases of to bpm from baseline in standing pulse rate were observed with CONCERTA® at the end of the double-blind treatment vs. an increase of beats/minute with placebo. Mean changes from baseline in standing blood pressure at the end of double-blind treatment ranged from to mm Hg (systolic) and to mm Hg (diastolic) for CONCERTA® and was mm Hg (systolic) and - mm Hg (diastolic) for placebo. In a second placebo-controlled study in adults (Study 5), mean changes from baseline in resting pulse rate were observed for CONCERTA® and placebo at the end of the double-blind treatment ( and - beats/minute, respectively). Mean changes from baseline in blood pressure at the end of the double-blind treatment for CONCERTA® and placebo-treated patients were - and - mm Hg (systolic) and and mm Hg (diastolic), respectively [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ].